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      LunaBat DFR-1

      Ultrasound Detector with embedded Broadband Direct Full Spectrum Recorder and FD-type live detection  (SKU#208, SKU#209)

      Detector LunaBat DFR-1 small
      Detector LunaBat DFR-1




      Easy to use, compact and lightweight, broadband ultrasound detector equipped with a specialized Broadband HF Direct Full Spectrum SD-Card Recorder and FD-type detection for live listening of ultrasounds on embedded speaker or headphones. Integrated recorder enables high resolution recording of ultrasounds, not distorted by detecting  circuits. In contrast to any commercially available digital recorder (like Korg MR-2, Sony PCM-D100) can also record the echolocation of the Lesser horseshoe bat (Rhinolophus hipposideros) – see: the last picture in SPECTROGRAMS tab.



      LunaBat DFR-1 with GP-1 (mobile GPS/Glonass receiver)
      LunaBat DFR-1 with GP-1 (mobile GPS/Glonass receiver) on a tripod

      LunaBat DFR-1 with illuminated color keys
      LunaBat DFR-1 with illuminated color keys ( model from 2016 year)

      Technical specification:

      • Sampling rates for Direct High Frequency recording: 192 kHz, 256 kHz (default) and 384 kHz
      • Sampling rates for Frequency-Division recording: 24 kHz and 48 kHz (internal HF/FD intelligent switching)
      • File format for recordings: WAV-PCM, 16-bit, 1-channel (mono)
      • File format for Temperature/Rel. Humidity/Geolocation: TXT-files (they can be converted internally to Google KML file since the v.7.15 firmware)
      • Capacity of memory cards: 2-128 GB (tested)
      • Signal to noise ratio (for ME-5 microphones): >62 dB
      • Recording bandwidth (+/-3dB): from ~200 Hz up to :
        • ~190 kHz (S.R.=384 kHz)
        • ~126 kHz (S.R.=256 kHz)
        • ~95 kHz (S.R.=192 kHz)
      • Lower limit frequency (-3dB) with highpass filter (HPF) enabled: 15 kHz
      • Total Harmonic and Intermodulation distortions: (over recording bandwidth)
      • Sensitivity threshold level (with ME-5 mic and 40kHz): ~19 dB SPL
      • Levels of recording sensitivity regulation: 128 levels (0 to 127,default: 63)
      • Threshold levels for triggered recording: 128 levels (0 to 127,default: 63)

      Characteristics of the detector:

      • Replaceable microphones for easy upgrade/service/change directivity and frequency response in the field
      • Broadband High Frequency/Direct Ultrasonic Recording on SDHC/SDXC memory cards in popular format
      • High quality Delta-Sigma Analog to Digital Converter (clear recording without typical aliasing distortions in SAR-ADC’s)
      • Additional high-pass filter switched in the menu (Fd=15 kHz) to eliminate audio interference
      • Ability to change the width of the recorded band (and therefore also the size of WAV files) by changing the sampling frequency
      • Possibility of a “classicaudio recording ultrasounds are processed by the built-in FD detector can be saved at lower sampling rates24kHz and 48kHz (both of these modes still allows you to record the Lesser horsehoe bat echolocations)
      • COM” switch for recording the spoken comments with temporarily disabled High-Pass Filter and switched the recording source to the linear broadband HF signal
      • Linear Amplitude Retention System during live monitoring on speaker or headphones
      • High quality industrial grade, waterproof (IP-67) German microphone connector for stable and long lasting work of microphone without disruptions caused by the operation under field conditions
      • High quality proffessional grade nickel/gold-plated headphones connector meeting the requirements of the IEEE and ANSI standards for good contact and compliance sized socket with international standards
      • Headphone output with high output level for using even with the low sensitivity headphones
      • Unique function: built in Temperature along with Relative Humidity sensors (data data are stored in .txt and .kml files and can be previewed on LCD in MENU)
      • 8-point level meter (LED line) below the display
      • Selected Sampling Rate and the state of High Pass Filter are displayed on LCD
      • Built-in real time clock (recordings are marked with the date and time for the recording in WAV file attributes and in the filenames of WAV files)
      • Displays current time, the recording time and the amount of available space on the memory card on the LCD
      • Displays current GPS position (in the menu)
      • Google KML file can be generated on memory card with marked date and time to recognize where the files were recorded (along with the local temp/humidity data)
      • Possibility to synchronize internal Real Time Clock with GPS / Glonass clock via GPS/Glonass optional GP-1 or GP-2 receiver with ability to localized time shifting.
      • 4-point battery voltage level indicator on the LCD
      • Automatic creation of subsequent recordings (3s, 5s, 10s, 15s, 30s, 1m, 2m, 5m, 10m, 20m and 60min each)
      • Automatic / triggered recording (128 sensitivity steps with current 7.17b firmware)
      • Automatic shutdown of the detector and recording process after battery discharge to a safe level of ~ 1.0V / cell
      • Requires just two pieces of the most popular AA cells (primary or Ni-MH batteries)
      • Very low power consumption for maximum recording time ~ 6-8h (depending on the capacity of used AA cells) or ~11-14h with listening only (without recording)
      • Ability to turn off the LCD backlight, illuminated keyboard (if installed) and the level meter for stealth behaviour or even more savings on power consumption
      • Socket withphotographic” 1/4inch thread for mounting on a tripod or connecting with other photographic accessories
      • Rubberized side edges to ensure a good grip even when wearing gloves
      • Firm wrist strap
      • Lightweight – 175g (without battery and microphone), ca. 200g with batteries and ME-series microphones
      • Optional microphone extension cables
      • User upgradeable firmware via USB cable and Windows (or Wine equipped LInux machine)

      Latest upgrades:

      • NEW! – the lower limit frequency of the HPF filter in the FD signal path is now switched from 15kHz to 10kHz at the same time when disabling the HPF filter in the FS recording path (the HPF filter in the FD path is lowered to allow for lower frequencies to be listened and/or recorded in FD recording mode)
      • optional GPS/Glonass GP-1 modules for GPS position logging and atomic date/clock synchronisation
      • GPS coordinates with the built-in Temp/R.H. sensor data can be generated directly on memory card in Google KML format
      • coloured illumination of keys for night visibility in second/alternative SKU#209 version of the detector (3 color groups: red, blue and white keys)
      • additional triggered automatic recording mode (selectable in the MENU, sensitivity can be trimmed  in 128 steps)
      • ability to trim the recording level (in 128 steps in the MENU)

      Future/planned upgrades:

      • support for our future high sensitivity Capacitive Microphones with HV polarisation: MC-1 and MC-2 (they will be available shortly)
      • additional external temperature and moisture sensors

      NOTE FOR USERS: Embedded Frequency-Division detector is parallel and independent signal path and is designed mainly for live listening, but because of significant superiority of High Frequency (Full Spectrum, Direct Recording) system over any FD-type detection –  the live listening feature should be treated rather as “audible indication of normal and stronger ultrasounds”. Broadband HF (FSDR) system is much more sensitive than FD-system, due to the lack of effects of threshold action in the signal path, and also because of possibility to completely disable  High-Pass Filter, which is always enabled in the FD signal path. THEREFORE THE ECHOLOCATIONS OR SOCIAL CALLS CAN BE RECORDED EVEN IF THEY ARE NOT AUDIBLE FROM INTERNAL SPEAKER (OR FROM CONNECTED HEADPHONES). Read more in the “Latest upgrades” section.

      Comparison of broadband recording quality of LunaBat DFR-1 detector (spectrogram below, ME-4 microphone) with Wildlife Acoustic EM3+ recording (synchronized recordings pasted to right / bottom and left / top channels respectively):

      The LunaBat DFR-1 detector shows not only less noise than the Wildlife Acoustics EM3+, but also the recorded signals have a significantly wider frequency spectrum, and even the remains of the second harmonic around 80 kHz are visible.

      Examples of High Frequency recordings:

      Recording 1 – Soprano pipistrelle (Pipistrellus pygmaeus) spectrogram:

      Two bats recorded on LunaBat DFR-1

      Recording 1 – time expanded (10x slower) preview file. Original HF file is HERE (right click and “Save link as…”)

      Spectrogram of the same recording in Audacity:

      Spectrogram in Audacity

      Recording 2  – Nathusius’s pipistrelle (Pipistrellus nathusii) spectrogram:


      Recording 2 –  time expanded (10x slower) preview file. Original HF file is HERE (right click and “Save link as…”)

      Recording 3 – Lesser horseshoe (Rhinolophus hipposideros) spectrogram:


      Recording 3 –  time expanded (10x slower) preview file.

      Recording 3 –  time expanded (20x slower) preview file. Original HF file is HERE (right click and “Save link as…”)

      Recording times limited by power:

      Charger: TechnoLine BC-700, charging current: 700mA, memory card: Samsung SDHC 32GB UHS-1

      Other parameters: Fs=256kHz, HPF=OFF, LED=ON, firmware v6.20, environment temp.: 23-24°C (or described)

      Max recording time = summary time of all WAV files in manual recording mode until battery depletion and detector is going to sleep (at ~1.0V/cell).


      Fujitsu White AA (min.1900 mAh, typ. 2000 mAh) => #1: 6h 34m 02s, #2: 6h 47m 46s, #3 (with GPS, temp. 6-7°C): 5h 47m 19s

      Fujitsu Black AA (min. 2450 mAh) => #1: 8h 21m 17s, #2: 8h 43m 39s, #3 (with GPS, temp. 5-6°C): 7h 26m 18s

      Varta Ready To Use 2600 mAh => #1: 8h 28m 04s, #2:  8h 18m 13s

      AEROCELL AA primary alkaline batteries => 4h 56m 34s *

      *NOTE: The cheap Aerocell primary alkaline batteries from Lidl discount have the capacity ~2170mAh after discharging to 0,8V with 250/350mA current, and 1550-1600 mAh when discharged in the detector, which is currently optimized to use with Ni-MH rechargeables, and therefore recording times on primary cells are relatively weak, but it will be improved in future firmware versions.

      Simple comparison of  primary cells on Youtube: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=t0865bHyRjQ

      Recording times limited by memory card space:

      Memory cards from different manufacturers differ in actual capacity, eg. the card added with the detector (Samsung 32GB SDHC UHS-1) has real capacity 31 426 871 296 B. Here is assumed that  1 GB = 1024 MB = 1 048 576 KB = 1 073 741 824 B.

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      GPS logging

      By connecting an optional GNSS receiver (for example  multisystem mobile receiver GP-1 or GP-2) the LunaBat DFR-1 detector is gaining the abilities:

      • possibility to synchronize the internal clock with the exact clock of geolocation systems (with localized time shifting),
      • possibility to log the coordinates in text logs,
      • possibility to generate popular Google KML files directly on the memory card without the need for additional converters.

      When writing the WAV files, the log files (in simple TXT format) are also written to the memory card. Log files includes the readings from internal temperature and relative humidity sensors, and (if connected) the GPS receiver status with geolocation coordinates. The names of the generated TXT logs are identical to the names of the simultaneously recorded WAV files, in YYYY-MM-DD_GGMMSS.txt format (Year-Month-Day_HoursMinutesSeconds), so the readable data can be uniquely assigned to the recordings.
      In the new firmware versions (since ver.7.00), user can also generate the Google KML files directly on the memory card. They can be created in the standby mode from within the menu (MENU> SAVE KML). The data in created KML file are obtained from the TXT logs present in the root directory of the memory card. When this feature is selected, a dump.kml file is created on a memory card (also in the root directory). This file can be opened directly in Google Maps or Google Earth, or in other programs that accepts Google KML format. If necessary,  the KML file can be also converted to other formats with eg. the free open source GPS Babel converter for further data processing in GIS programs. Of course there are also TXT files, which can be used and processed in many other ways.
      The log data in dump.kml file (in Google Earth and Google Maps) are contained in location descriptions.

      Sample visualization of a few recording places in Google Earth based on a kml file generated in LunaBat DFR-1 detector: 

      KML file generated in LunaBat DFR-1 detector opened in Google Earth (click to open in higher resolution)

      In the photo above you can see the places marked with the yellow thumbtacks in which the wav (and corresponding txt) files were created. The names of the files that contain the exact date and time of creating the WAV / TXT files are also displayed. The temperature and relative humidity and the type of the obtained fix (2D or 3D) in given place can be displayed by clicking on the thumbtack or by selecting the Properties of the thumbtack (or place in the Places on the left menu).

      Visualization of the same kml file in Google Maps:
      KML file from LunaBat DFR-1 detector opened in Google Maps (click to open in higher resolution)

      Sample visualization of the same KML file in QGIS program:

      KML file from LunaBat DFR-1 detector opened in QGIS (click to open in higher resolution)

      Yellow dots are places, red dot is highlighted place and all data at marked place are in the Identify results window on the left side.

      KML file converted to XLSX Excel format:

      The original sample dump.kml file generated in LunaBat DFR-1 detector used in the above examples can be downloaded HERE (click with right mouse button and choose “Save link as…“). Other useful links are available in the local Download tab on this page or in the global Download tab in the main menu on the top of the site.

      The content of the TXT log file when the GNSS receiver is connected and 3D fix is obtained:

      The coordinates (in NMEA 0183 format) are visible and can be used to create a Google KML file, or processed in a different way.

      The content of the TXT log file when the GNSS receiver is connected, but fix is not yet obtained:

      The content of the TXT log file when the GNSS receiver is not connected (or switched off in the menu):

      For information about old style logging (firmware up to v.6.22) look HERE.

      Standard accessories supplied with the detector:
      • ME-4 detechable broadband microphone;
      • MF-1 microphone windscreen (low loss, less than 1.5dB at 200kHz);
      • NEW!! now with set of new generation high capacity rechargeable batteries, 4x AA Fujitsu Black or Panasonic eneloop pro – (both types are manufactured in Japan by FDK Corp., min. 2450mAh, typ. 2600mAh) about 1/3 larger capacity than the “white” Fujitsu / eneloops !
      • Waterproof shielded memory card SDHC 32GB class UHS-1 (read speed ~80 MB/s) compatible with the recording at the highest sampling rate (384 kHz) with a plastic box;
      • Weatherproof stiffened pouch ET-3 for safe transport and storage of the detector even with the optional GPS receiver connected without having to disassemble it
      Optional accessories:
      • GP-1Mobile Multi-system GNSS Receiver. More info HERE
      • GP-2Automotive Multi-system GNSS Receiver. More info HERE
      • Spare 32GB SDHC UHS memory card
      • Short 17cm UM-1 handle / rail with screws with photo thread (1/4 “UNC-20) for connection to other equipment or photo accessories with tripod thread
      • 50cm-3m Microphone extender cables with IP40 / IP65 connectors (waterproof female connector on the microphone side) – cable length on request
      • Spare microphone windshield MF-1
      • Set of 4 Low Self Discharge rechargeable AA high capacity batteries with plastic box
      • Four-channel charger for AA / R6 and AAA / R3 rechargeable batteries Everactive NC-1000 Plus with capacity testing, refresh and other useful functions
      • Headphones with mini-jack stereo plug
      • Suction cup holder with tripod thread
      • Tripods – various types after prior arrangement.
      Other accessories on request.


      • User Manual for LunaBat DFR-1 detector (v1.0, for FW v7.21b) (PDF,  kB) (eng. version under translation)
      • User Manual for LunaBat DFR-1 detector (v1.0, for FW v7.21b) (PDF, 1598 kB) PL VERSION>>
      • Firmware update pack for LunaBat DFR-1 detector (Release Candidate version 7.35) (ZIP, 1648 kB) DOWNLOAD>>
      • Firmware update pack for LunaBat DFR-1 PRO detector (Release Candidate version 7.35) (ZIP, 1649 kB) DOWNLOAD>>


      • GPS Babel multiformat converter (accepts MTK Locus format from GP-1/GP-2 receivers) LINK>>
      • Instruction of importing KML files into Google Maps LINK1>>   LINK2>>
      • GPSvisualizer – online visualization tool LINK>>
      • GPSMapEdit – editor & visualizer  LINK>>
      • WAV file size calculatorsLINK1>>  LINK2>>
      • Offline converter for KML to CSV format: LINK>>
      • Online converters for KML to CSV, XLS/XLSX or other formats: LINK1>> and LINK2>>
      • Link to QGIS – an open source GIS multiplatform application LINK>>

      Links to useful tools and applications can be also found on the Download tab (at the top of the page), under Programs section.


      • Triggering bat detectors: Automatic vs. manual modeLINK>>
      • Table of comparative properties of different detectors (pl lang., older detectors) LINK>>
      • Table of comparative properties of different detectors (eng lang., more recent detectors) (available soon)
      • Guidelines for assessing the impact of wind turbines on bats (pl lang.) DOWNLOAD>>

      Detector LunaBat DFR-1 / non-illuminated keys
      849 EUR
      (netto without VAT/Mwst., brutto=1044,27 EUR)
        Standard and optional accessories are in the ACCESSORIES tab at the top of this page.
      NOTE: Current shipping time – up to 7 working days after payment.